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seed-library-poster-BLOGOn May 3-6 I attended the first International Seed Library Forum in Tucson, Arizona. This event brought together many of the movers and shakers in the seed library world that I wrote about in Seed Libraries and we all got to meet face-to-face! It sure beats communicating by email, which is what I did to have each one confirm what I had written about them or their project in my book.

As soon as I arrived at the hotel I met Rebecca Newburn, the person who propelled the seed library movement into what it is today by putting all the information on the Internet in a way that it could be easily replicated. She is also the one who keeps the Sister Seed Library list up to date. That List was a tremendous help to me when I was writing Seed Libraries. My friends Ira and Irena from Southern Exposure Seed Exchange were already at the hotel, as well as Cary Fowler, special adviser to the Global Crop Diversity Trust. Gary Nabhan arrived in short order with a van and took us to visit the San Agustin Mission Garden. Although Gary gave credit to others for organizing this conference, I believe it was his idea and it couldn’t have happened without his guidance and connections.

Arbor at the San Agustin Mission

Arbor at the San Agustin Mission

The San Agustin Mission Garden is a living agricultural museum of Sonoran Desert adapted heritage fruit trees, traditional local heirloom crops and edible native plants. One of the many important crops grown here is White Sonora wheat, perfectly suited for tortillas, among other uses. It was an export crop for Arizona in the l9th century, providing wheat for flour that fed armies from both the North and South during the Civil War. As food systems changed to an industrial model White Sonora wheat was only grown by a few farmers. Through the efforts of Native Seeds/SEARCH, White Sonora wheat is being brought back into commercial production. Living in Virginia with an annual rainfall of about 44 inches a year, it was really interesting visiting Tucson where the average rainfall is about 12 inches annually.

With those thoughts of wheat attuned to the Arizona climate, you can begin to understand just how important it is to have seed libraries to preserve the varieties that do the best in individual regions. We need to discover what grows best in our own areas and keep those crops and varieties available and in production locally. A few state departments of agriculture have decided that seed libraries need to be governed by the state seed laws and that is what brought us all together that week. Two lawyers, Neil Thapar from the Sustainable Economies Law Center and Neil Hamilton from Drake University Agricultural Law Center provided guidance on legal matters throughout the Forum and particularly in drawing up the Joint Resolution in Support of Seed Libraries. That document will help those who are working on legislation to make seed libraries exempt from seed laws. I met Betsy Goodman of the Common Soil Seed Library who has been active on that issue in Nebraska.

I was able to attend the session concerning establishing an International Seed Library organization. Thanks to Rebecca Newburn and her Cool Beans newsletter (May issue), you can view the minutes of the meeting here. You will find me second from the left in the panoramic photo. Information about Cool Beans is available at seed.libraries.net where you can sign up to receive it and stay in the loop about seed library issues.

The two panels I participated on were Lessons Learned from Seed Lenders: Evaluating Seed Library Outreach and Educational Needs and What’s Next for Seed Libraries. Other sessions delved into additional means of securing community access to seeds, such as SNAP and gleaning; providing seed access to beginning farmers; working with non-profits; and working with school and youth garden programs. Seed Savers Exchange was represented at the Forum by John Torgrimson and Toby Cain. It was good to see Bill McDorman of Rocky Mountain Seed Alliance again. Bill and his wife Belle wrote the Foreword for Seed Libraries and operate Seed School which I attended last November.

Seed Broadcast van with Chrissie Orr.

Seed Story Broadcast van with Chrissie Orr.

And then there was the collection of stories. There is a photo in Seed Libraries of the Seed Story Broadcast van and, don’t you know, it was there! I was happy to see it that first evening when we arrived at the Loft Cinema for a seed swap in the parking lot and later inside to view Seeds of Time, starring Cary Fowler. There were so many people to meet during the seed swap—people I had corresponded with while writing the book, people I had corresponded with since writing the book, and people seeking me out who had read the book. Several people told me they had been reading Seed Libraries on the plane and I had the cartoon image in my head of airplanes converging on Tucson with the passengers all reading Seed Libraries! It was so much fun talking with everyone. Jeannette Hart-Mann and Chrissie Orr collect seed stories and broadcast them from their Seed Story Broadcast van, which is an opportunity to collect art as well as stories. It was wonderful to actually meet them. They later parked the van outside the Pima County Library and whenever I went outside during the breaks I would hear them call my name to come and leave a story, so I did.

Matthew and Keri checking the selections at the Pima County Seed Library.

Matthew and Keri checking the selections at the Pima County Seed Library.

The Pima County Public Library hosted the Forum at the Joel D. Valdez Main Library. When I was researching for the book, people told me they were helped by information provided by the Pima County Seed Library resources. Justine Hernandez was instrumental in making that happen. Gary Nabhan announced that this conference was indeed international with five countries represented—then participants spoke up, adding two more to the list. I met more Canadians than I expected, including Matthew from Victoria Seed Library in Victoria, British Columbia, Keri, an urban farmer from Saskatchewan, Jacob from the Toronto Seed Library, and Rupert who grows seeds for Salt Spring Seeds and operates Kairos Botanicals. There are too many new friends to mention, but I value my visit with each of them. Wanda, local to Tucson, was very helpful to those of us new to the city, popping up with good advice when we needed it, such as places to eat. As things wound down at Native Seeds/SEARCH on the last day she gave me a pink rock in the shape of a heart that was gathered from around Tucson. What a nice treasure to have to remember everything that happened over the past few days.

There was no admission fee to this conference thanks to support from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, the Amy P. Goldman Foundation, and the Arizona Library Association. This event was presented by a collaborative effort of: Community Food Bank of Southern Arizona, Edible Baja Arizona magazine, The Friends of Tucson’s Birthplace’s Mission Gardens, The Loft Cinema, Mercado de San Agustín, Native Seeds/SEARCH, Pima County Public Library, and University of Arizona. Additional co-sponsors included Greenhorns, the National Young Farmers Association, the Seed Library Social Network, Seed Savers Exchange, and the Rocky Mountain Seed Alliance. The artwork was created by Paul Mirocha Design.

To Gary Nabhan who first called me to see if I would participate, to all the folks who made it happen, and to my many new friends, THANK YOU for a wonderful few days in Tucson! Seed libraries are thriving and the groundwork has been laid to make sure they stay that way.Homeplace Earth

Ladybug eating an aphid.

Ladybug eating an aphid.

Having a garden where everything is in harmony is what I aspire to and what I would hope my readers are looking for, also. Can you imagine having beneficial insects just show up on their own and take out the annoying insects without you having to even think about it? That’s what happens in my garden. In the photo you can see a ladybug eating an aphid. I happened to be in the garden with the camera at the right time to catch that. I found that action on a cowpea plant. I have also found ladybugs on my rye plants when they were flowering. You can tell they are in flower by the pollen bits that are hanging off the potential seed head.

I plant those crops both as food for our table and as cover crops for food for the soil. The most basic thing to remember about having a healthy garden is to Feed the Soil and Build the Ecosystem. When you do that, all sorts of wonderful happens in your garden. Make sure you don’t use any chemicals, even a little bit. That would set your efforts back tremendously. Be alert to the fact that even chemicals that may be allowed under organic certification under certain circumstances could be harmful to the beneficials you hope to attract. Feeding the soil to produce healthy plants is your first protection against insect and disease damage. Healthy plants are less attractive to the harmful insects.

Assassin Bug nymphs.

Assassin Bug nymphs.

Cowpeas must be good for attracting the right kind of insects because I’ve also seen Assassin Bugs, also known as Wheel Bugs, on my cowpea plants. Here is a photo of the Assassin bug nymphs that I found in my garden on a cowpea plant. There was an adult with them, which was a help with the identification. To identify insects I usually turn to Insects, Disease, and Weed I.D. Guide, edited by Jill Jesiolowski Cebenko and Deborah L. Martin for Rodale Press. According to that book “adults and nymphs are voracious predators that feed on both larvae and adult insects, including aphids, beetles, caterpillars, flies, and leafhoppers.” When you find an unfamiliar insect in your garden, identify it before you decide to harm it.

If you are looking for a perennial to plant to attract beneficials without having to replant each year, put in tansy. Tansy is in the aster family, which is known for attracting good insects. Other Aster family members are cosmos, sunflowers, zinnias, and chamomile. In her book Great Garden Companions, Sally Jean Cunningham refers to tansy as “probably the single best attractor for beneficial insects.” When I took a two week permaculture design course in 2006 at Three Sisters Farm in Pennsylvania, Darrell Frye was proud of his Tansy Tangle, as he called it. Once it flowers, tansy can look quite wild when it leans over from the weight of the flowers. Darrell had corralled it with a few fence posts and string to hold it up. At home we have tansy growing across the back of the porch. I have a tendency to let things be more on the wild side than my husband, who has the urge to get the clippers when things look too messy. My remedy to that is to cut some early at the base and it will grow back and bloom again as shorter plants. By the time it is growing back, the rest needs a good trimming, but that’s okay, because I have that early cutting growing back. What I don’t like is if it is cut all at one time. That leaves nothing for the insects. Plants in the carrot family, such as dill, angelica, caraway, lovage, fennel, and coriander, and in the mint family (spearmint, bee balm, and catnip) all contribute to attracting insects beneficial to your garden. You need to let them flower in order to attract those beneficials. Attracting beneficial insects can be as easy as letting some of your basil flower.

Honeybees at the birdbath.

Honeybees at the birdbath.

Pollinators are good to attract to your garden. Although honeybees get most of the attention, there are many other insects that act as pollinators. I was surprised by the amount of water honeybees need in the summer. When I saw my honeybees at my neighbor’s garden fountain I realized I should give them some water closer to home, so I put up a birdbath. Sometimes in June I find it necessary to fill it three times a day! You can see in the photo that my birdbath has a shallow bowl where the bees can wade in on the edge. If they tried to get water from a deep dish, they would drown.

I bought the birdbath with the bees in mind and put it in a flower bed. Of course, it also attracts birds and they are a joy to watch. Birds can be beneficial helpers in your garden by eating pest insects and slugs. Posts or other objects in your garden will give them a place to land and watch for their prey. Have a sit spot for yourself so you can watch them in action. Trellises you may have for your vegetables can serve as resting spots for the birds. Birdhouses on the perimeter add interest to your garden and a place for permanent or seasonal residence for your feathered friends.

Insects need more than plants to keep them around. They need places to live. You can provide habitat for them by providing cover in your paths. Planting white clover there or having mulch, such as leaves, will do for that. If you till your garden all at once, it is like cutting all the tansy at once—there is no place for the insects to go. Having permanent beds and permanent paths contributes to building your ecosystem. Having shady places among your plants and spots left wild, such as weedy fencerows sometimes are, also help the ecosystem. You can attract toads this way. Water spots close to ground level will please them.

There is so much more to learn about attracting beneficials to your garden and you will find some great ideas by searching for information on companion planting. Keep in mind that if you relax, plant a variety of plants, and provide the right habitat, Mother Nature will step in to help you out.Homeplace Earth

Butternut Squash

Butternut Squash–sometimes squash flowers are taped shut after fertilizing.

Saving your own seeds is a wonderful thing to do, but it is something you should plan for early in the growing season. If you know you will be saving seeds, make sure the varieties of each crop you will be saving from do not have a chance to cross pollinate with other varieties of the same crop. There are charts online and in seed saving books that give isolation distances for each crop—the distance varieties must be separated to avoid cross pollination. The distance might be shortened if there are barriers present, such as trees or shrubs and solid fences. Having a hedge as a boundary around your garden would decrease the distance you have to be from your neighbor’s garden to avoid cross pollination.

You could use time as an isolation method. Plants that have a limited blooming period can be managed so that the flowering of different varieties doesn’t happen at the same time. For example, on the same day you could plant two varieties of corn that have at least two weeks difference in their dates to maturity. The pollen from the first variety will have finished by the time the pollen is released from the later maturing variety. Or, you could plant two varieties of corn with the same dates to maturity, but space the planting times two weeks apart.

Some growers resort to using bags or screened cages to keep their crops from cross pollinating and some even resort to hand pollinating. Hand pollination is sometimes done with flowers in the squash family—the cucurbits. I’ve never had the patience to watch for female flowers to open, then pollinate them with pollen collected from the male flowers of the plant. The fertilized flowers would then be taped shut. If I intend to save seeds from squash crops I only plant one variety in each species in the genus Cucurbita. Although there are six species, I’ve only encountered four: Cucurbita maxima, C. mixta, C. moschata, and C. pepo. You can grow one variety of each species at the same time without worrying about cross pollination. A good seed catalog will indicate which species a squash variety belongs to.

Have goals in mind for what you are selecting for. When you are first starting out you might be happy to save any seeds at all. Collecting from as many plants as possible will give you a broader range of genetics; however, you might want to select for certain traits, such as earliness, lateness, taste, shape, size or color. If you save seeds from the plants that produce the first tomatoes of the season, you are selecting for earliness. Those plants may or may not be the same plants that produce tomatoes the longest into the season. Pay attention to what drives you to choose the plants to save from. Sometimes you will notice a plant that is doing exceptionally well, but it is not the right time to save seeds yet. Tag that plant that has the characteristics you want to preserve so you can identify it when the right time to save seeds occurs.

Principe Borghese tomatoes

Principe Borghese tomatoes

When tomatoes and peppers are harvested at full ripeness for eating, their seeds are mature and can be readily saved. For summer squashes and cucumbers, you would need to leave the vegetables on the plant until they are overgrown and way past the time to harvest for eating. Still other crops need to be left over the winter, saving the seeds when the plants flower the following year. The extra time for these plants to be in your garden needs to be accounted for in your garden plan.

Red Russian kale gone to seed.

Red Russian kale gone to seed.

The kale and collards you might have harvested for food for the table through the winter will be vacating your garden bed in March when they begin to bolt. However, if you are saving seeds from them, they may occupy that space until June. Only let one variety of cabbage family plants flower and go to seed at a time to avoid cross pollination. Before the variety you are saving from begins to flower, you should have begun to choose which plants you want to save seeds from. Most likely, the first to flower won’t be among your choices, nor will the plants that produced the least foliage to harvest through the winter. Pulling those plants out first leaves more room for the others and is part of the selection process.

Seed saving is a way to deepen your gardening experience and is an adventure that you can share with others through your neighborhood seed library. If your seeds are destined to be shared through a seed library, you will want to make sure that what you are sharing is what you say it is and hasn’t cross pollinated with anything else. If you don’t have a seed library in your neighborhood you may want to start one. You will find guidance for that project in my book Seed Libraries and Other Means of Keeping Seeds in the Hands of the People.

Seed libraries have been evolving at a rapid pace. Those who have been involved in that evolution will be coming together to study the issue at the First International Seed Library Forum in Tucson, Arizona, May 3-6. I’m looking forward to being one of the panelists for that event. You never know where your seed saving hobby will take you.Homeplace Earth

 

Upcoming Events

???????????????????????????????I’m going to be out and about traveling to some special events in the coming months. First up is a visit to the Washington County Seed Savers Library in Abingdon, VA, then on to the Mother Earth News Fair in Asheville, NC. In early May I’ll be in Tucson, AZ for the First International Seed Libraries Forum. Find me in Vermont the first week of June at the Slow Living Summit. Here is a list of all the events on my schedule so far through June. The complete list for the year, which I’ll be updating as necessary, is at Homeplace Earth.  Come see me!

April 9, 2015  Washington County Library, Abingdon, VA. Cindy will give a presentation at 7pm, followed by a book signing.

April 11-12, 2015  Mother Earth News Fair, Asheville, NC. Look for Cindy on the speaker schedule. motherearthnewsfair.com.

April 25, 2015  Spring Garden Fest, Reynolds Community College, Goochland, VA. Cindy will be in the college library signing books from noon to 1:15 pm. 

May 2, 2015  Ashland Farmers Market, Ashland, VA. Cindy will be there signing books from 9-noon.

May 3-6, 2015  International Seed Libraries Forum, Tucson, AZ Look for Cindy on the speaker schedule.

May 16, 2015  Spring Conference-Master Gardener Association of Central Rappahannock Area.  Cindy will be speaking on Grow a Sustainable Diet. University of Mary Washington, Fredericksburg, VA.

June 3-5, 2015  Slow Living Summit, Brattleboro, VT. Look for Cindy on the schedule speaking about seed libraries. slowlivingsummit.org

Homeplace Earth

 

 

Garden in late winter with compost piles as part of the rotation.

Garden in late winter with compost piles as part of the rotation.

For many years I had compost bins lined up on the edge of my garden. Discussion about compost generally included what kind of bins I used and where I sourced the materials to put in them. My bins were made from pallets I acquired for free. Each of three sides was made by pounding two t-posts into the ground and sliding a pallet over them. If one side needed to be replaced, that could be easily done, since the sides weren’t tied or nailed together. The fourth side was made by using bungee cords to hold it in place. To remove the compost, I released that side by removing the bungee cords.

The ingredients of those piles were usually animal bedding (from our animals or some I brought in from other places), leaves (from here or elsewhere), food scraps from our table, and maybe grass clippings. The compost bin was a handy place to toss garden residue—weeds and spent plants. Gradually I stopped including outside materials in my compost as I studied GROW BIONTENSIVE (GB) methods and produced more of my own compost biomass in my garden. The bulk of the material I used to bring in was for the carbon. With GB I grew more grains and corn, using the straw and stalks for carbon. Eventually, all the compost materials were coming from my own garden.

Butternut squash growing around and over the compost pile.

Butternut squash growing around and over the compost pile.

Rethinking the materials is only part of rethinking compost piles. If you are into tidy, and think compost requires a bin, you may have a hard time thinking outside that, but I urge you to try. Besides keeping them tidy, bins serve to keep animals out of your piles. If you include food scraps in your piles and have a dog, or neighborhood dogs frequent your place, you may want a bin. However, if your compost pile is within your fenced garden, you have already fenced out the critters. Once I put a fence around the garden I did away with the bins, but the piles were still on the edge of the garden space. It was when butternut squash grew wild around and over my pile one year that I began to think about the nutrients that were leaching into the ground each year beneath the piles and not being used.

Having to walk back and forth to the edge of the garden to put compost materials there that had grown in the garden, or to retrieve compost for the beds, also served to nudge me into planning to have my compost piles as part of my garden rotation. By the way, I did away with the notion that compost needed to be turned regularly long ago. Left to what they do best and the microbes turn all that organic matter into finished compost all by themselves. I do water occasionally to keep them hydrated.

Now I devote a garden bed, actually more than one, to compost. On my garden map, compost is shown, just as all the crops for the year are. The two biggest times for starting a new pile for me are in June when the grains are harvested and in October when the cornstalks, sweet potato, and peanuts are harvested. It is in October when the new compost bed is put to use. Whatever bed is designated to store compost for the coming year is where I start the new pile in October. The pile I created in the summer that needs more time to cure will be moved to this new compost bed. That is the only time it gets turned. If the new compost bed is part of the garden rotation it will be located next to the old compost bed, making the transition an easy one. You do not want to do any long distance hauling—just fork it from one bed to the next.

numbered compost piles

numbered compost piles

The rest of the compost in that bed, including the one started the previous October, should be ready to spread, which I do in September and October before I plant cover crops. Throughout the year there will be other materials added to the piles as weeding and harvesting is done. There will also be finished compost available to add to beds each time a new crop goes in. By following GB guidelines and having at least 60% of the garden devoted to compost crops for the year, it is easy to have an abundance of compost. To keep track of the order the piles were made, so I know which will be ready to use next and which needs to set longer, I use old smooth metal fence posts (the kind used for electric fence) with blocks of wood on top with a number painted on them. Some people have little signs for their piles that say such things as “use me”, “feed me”, or “working.” The pile that I make in the fall will not be ready to use until the next fall. Wanting to make the best use of all my resources, including space and available nutrients, I plant butternut squash around the base of that pile and let the plants grow over it. Besides soaking up nutrients from beneath, the plants shade the pile, preventing weeds from moving in. By the time the winter squash is harvested, the compost is ready to spread.

In October I plant winter rye in the bed that the compost vacated. That cover crop soaks up all the nutrients that may have leached from the piles and gives them to the corn that will go into that bed the following year. When the rye is shedding pollen (about May 7 here in Zone 7), I cut it with a sickle and leave it lie in the bed as mulch. Two weeks later I transplant corn into the mulch. Generally there is a small amount of a legume, such as Austrian winter peas, sown and harvested with the rye. I have my best crop of corn in the bed that follows the compost.

This might all seem confusing, but if you take time to think it through, it will become clear. In Grow a Sustainable Diet I explain GROW BIOINTENSIVE methods and how to plan to have 60% of your garden in cover crops for the year. In that book I also have a garden map and explanation for the Garden of Ideas that shows compost as part of the garden rotation. My DVD Cover Crops and Compost Crops IN Your Garden shows compost making in the beds and the management of the cover crops with hand tools through the growing season. Think outside the compost bin and make compost an integral part of your garden!Homeplace Earth

20" long compost thermometer with a 1 3/4" face

20″ long compost thermometer with a 1 3/4″ face

Spring is here and I know you are anxious to be in the garden. As soon as the temperatures begin to climb it is really tempting to get seeds in the ground. Before you take that step, however, I encourage you to make sure the ground is ready for your seeds. Of course, you will loosen the soil and add compost and, if necessary, organic fertilizers, but did you take the temperature of the soil?

Seeds are naturally programmed to germinate and grow within a certain range of temperatures. Within that range they will grow faster or slower, depending on their comfort zone. It has been my experience that just because it is the right time to plant on the calendar, it may not be the right time to plant according to the soil. The temperature of the soil is more important than the date on the calendar. When I was a market gardener I would be anxious to get sugar snap peas in the ground in early March. I would put in another planting two weeks later. If the weather had been too cool, the first planting may not come into production until the second planting did. I learned to pull back the leaf mulch that covered the bed over the winter and put down a sheet of plastic two weeks before planting the sugar snaps to warm the soil. If the weather has been too cool and wet there is the danger that the seeds will rot and not germinate at all. Peas, beans, and corn are most susceptible to this, which is why you might find those seeds for sale coated with fungicide. Steer clear of fungicide coated seeds and plant at the right time. Beans and corn like the soil to be 60° F (15.6 °C) and cowpeas would like it if you wait to plant until it warms to 65° F (18.3°C).

If you have mulch covering some of your garden beds, go out and stick your hand in the soil under the mulch and then put your hand in the soil in a bed without mulch. You will feel a noticeable difference in the temperature. During the winter an organic mulch such as leaves or straw does a good job of protecting the soil and providing habitat for the earthworms. However, when things begin to warm up in the spring the mulch will insulate the soil from the sun’s rays. Removing the mulch two weeks ahead of planting will help to warm the soil. I am not so much in a hurry these days, so I don’t use plastic to further warm the soil, but it is an option. With my system of cover cropping, when the cover crop is finished, it is naturally time to plant the next crop.

thermometer with a 5" stem and 1 1/4" face

thermometer with a 5″ stem and 1 1/4″ face

You can monitor the temperature of the soil with a thermometer or by sticking your hand in the ground. Even better, go barefoot. There’s nothing like the whole body experience. You might want to use a thermometer until you can gauge the temperature by touch. I use either a 20” long compost thermometer with a 1¾” face (top photo) or a thermometer with a 5” stem and 1¼” face that I bought at the grocery store. I keep the long thermometer stuck in the soil somewhere so I don’t lose it. Usually it is in my coldframe, where it is right now. The nice thing about the compost thermometer is that it is easy to read without bending over too much. The small thermometer has so many uses. It comes with a plastic sleeve that has a pocket clip –handy if you are going to be carrying it around. The one you see in the photo is the one I use to monitor the temperature in my solar food dryer. It sticks through a hole drilled for that purpose with just the gauge showing on the outside of the dryer. A small thermometer such as this can be used in the kitchen, which is why you will find it in the grocery store.

You can find a chart showing a list of crops and the minimum, optimum, optimum range, and maximum soil temperature conditions for each in How to Grow More Vegetables by John Jeavons. A chart I find interesting is Days to Appearance of Seedlings at Various Soil Temperatures from Seed Planted at ½” Depth, compiled by J.F. Harrington. You can find it with an Internet search. It shows the number of days it takes for each crop to germinate at different temperatures. For example, peas will take 36 days to germinate at a soil temperature of 41°F (5°C), 13 days at 50°F (10°C) and 9 days at 59°F (15°C). You can see how warming up the soil will contribute to an earlier crop.

tomato,pepper, and zinnia seedlings in the coldframe???????????????????????????????

coldframe seedlings–tomatoes, peppers, and zinnias

Peppers, on the other hand, are shown to take 25 days to germinate at 59°F, 12 days at 68°F (20°C) and 9 days at 77° F (25° C). If you plant pepper and tomato seeds at the same time, the tomatoes will germinate first—in 14 days at 59°F, 8 days at 68°, and 6 days at 77°. I start my seeds in my coldframes, which provide cooler temperatures than starting them in the house. I put tomato, pepper, and other seeds of warm weather crops in my coldframe during the last week of March. Since I save much of my own seeds, I am developing strains of each crop that will germinate in cooler soil. The healthy plants that I take out of the coldframe are the ones that have germinated and thrived in the cooler conditions. The peppers that I have been most successful with in the coldframe are Corno di Toro and Ruffled Hungarian.

By saving your own seeds, you can develop strains of your crops that will germinate and grow under the conditions that you want to work with. Experiment with planting times and conditions in your garden. I would advise, however, to only take chances with what you can afford to lose. If you go into it with that attitude, you won’t be disappointed.

Homeplace Earth

 

Cindy Conner - blogCome and see me at the Ashland branch of the Pamunkey Regional Library in Ashland, Virginia on Wednesday, March 18 from 7-8:30 pm! The library will be giving away new seeds from Southern Exposure Seed Exchange and I will be giving the presentation Growing to Seed to Share. My talk will include organic gardening and seed saving tips, as well as well as inform you of the seed library movement taking place around the country. Afterward, I’ll be signing my books–Seed Libraries and Other Means of Keeping Seeds in the Hands of the People and Grow a Sustainable Diet: Planning and Growing to Feed Ourselves and the Earth.Homeplace Earth My DVDs will also be for sale.

See you there!

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